The Place of Enoch in the New Testament

Enoch Lithograph by William Blake

Enoch Lithograph by William Blake

The apostles Peter John, and Paul along with Jude the kinsman of Jesus, either cited, quoted from, or alluded to Enochian material. The author of Hebrews seems to have used thematic material from 2 Enoch (and the Melchizedekian tradition), although to a different end. The gospels demonstrate Jesus’ familiarity with 1 Enoch through His use of Enochian material. Joseph B. Lumpkin provides an interesting side-by-side comparison of the gospel passages, one I have amended to remove the more problematic references. In  addition, I have added other New Testament references that Lumpkin supplied as inter-textual notes.

Taken in isolation, it is possible to explain away a number of these references, to argue that they don’t derive from Enoch specifically. Some of the comparisons between Enoch and Revelations could have been made to other apocalyptic literature, or perhaps were just informed by the zeitgeist, the spirit of the age. Yet it is difficult to argue against the entire list of Enochian references. Many of them are too specific, and even word-for-word quotations. With that in mind, here is a side-by-side comparison of the most straightforward quotations and allusions.

New Testament 1 Enoch
Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.
(Mat 5:10-12)But woe to you who are rich, for you have already received your comfort. Woe to you who are well fed now, for you will go hungry. Woe to you who laugh now, for you will mourn and weep. Woe to you when all men speak well of you, for that is how their fathers treated the false prophets.
(Luk 6:24-26)
Woe to you, sinners, for you persecute the righteous; for you shall be delivered up and persecuted because of injustice, and your yoke shall be heavy on you.
(1 Enoch 95:7)
The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity.
(Mat 13: 41)
And this Son of Man whom you have seen shall raise up the kings and the mighty from their seats, and the strong from their thrones and shall loosen the reins of the strong, and break the teeth of the sinners. And he shall put down the kings from their thrones and kingdoms because they do not exalt and praise Him, nor humbly acknowledge who bestowed their kingdom on them.
(1 Enoch 46:4-5)
And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
(Mat 19: 28)
And I will bring out in shining light those who have loved My holy name, and I will seat each on the throne of his honor.
(1 Enoch 108:12)
When the Son of Man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory:
(Mat 25: 31)
And one portion of them shall look at the other, and they shall be terrified, and they shall look downcast, and pain shall seize them, when they see that Son of Man sitting on the throne of His glory.
(1 Enoch 62:5)
Woe unto that man through whom the Son of man is betrayed! It had been good for that man if he had not been born.
(Mat 26: 24)
Where will there be the dwelling for sinners, and where the will there be a resting-place for those who have denied the Lord of spirits? It had been good for them if they had not been born.
(1 Enoch 38: 2)
When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory. (Mat 25:31)And his raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them.
(Mar 9:3)
And He who is Great in Glory sat on the throne, and His raiment shone more brightly than the sun and was whiter than any snow.
(1 Enoch 14:20)
Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the father the son; and children shall rise up against their parents, and shall cause them to be put to death.
(Mar 13: 12)
And in those days in one place the fathers together with their sons shall kill one another and brothers shall fall in death together until the streams flow with their blood. 2 For a man shall not withhold his hand from killing his sons and his sons’ sons, and the sinner shall not withhold his hand from his honored brother, from dawn until sunset they shall kill one another.
(1 Enoch 100:1-2)
“Woe unto you that are rich! for ye have received your consolation.
(Luk 6: 24)
Woe to you, you rich, for you have trusted in your riches, and from your riches shall you depart, because you have not remembered the Most High in the days of your riches.
(1 Enoch 94: 8)
…between us and you there is a great gulf fixed.
(Luk 16: 26)
Then I asked, regarding all the hollow places (chasm): ‘Why is one separated from the other?’ And he answered me and said to me: ‘These three have been made that the spirits of the dead might be separated.
(1 Enoch 22: 8-9)
And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage: But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage: Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.
(Luk 20:34-36)
Go and say to the Watchers of heaven… Therefore I have not appointed wives for you; you are spiritual beings of heaven, and in heaven was your dwelling place.
(1 Enoch 15:2, 7)
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 The same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. 4 In him was life; and the life was the light of men. 5 And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.
(Joh 1: 1-5)
And when the Righteous One shall appear before the eyes of the elect righteous ones, whose works are weighed by the Lord of spirits, light shall appear to the righteous and the elect who dwell on the earth.
(1 Enoch 38:2)
…the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life.
(Joh 4: 14)
And in that place I saw the spring of righteousness which was inexhaustible. And around it were many springs of wisdom. And all the thirsty drank of them, and were filled with wisdom, and their dwellings were with the righteous and holy and elect.
(1 Enoch 48: 1)
The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the son.
(Joh 5: 22)
And he sat on the throne of his glory, and the sum of judgment was given to the Son of Man.
(1 Enoch 69:27)
…that ye may be called the children of light.
(Joh 12: 36)
And now I will summon the spirits of the good who belong to the generation of light…
(1 Enoch 108: 11)
In my Father’s house are many mansions: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you. 3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also.
(Joh 14: 2-3)
And there I saw the mansions of the elect and the mansions of the holy.
(1 Enoch 41:2)
To them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory and honour and immortality, eternal life: But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath, Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile; But glory, honour, and peace, to every man that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile: For there is no respect of persons with God.
(Rom 2: 7-11)
In the day of our suffering and tribulation He does not save and we find no respite for confession that our Lord is true in all His works, and in His judgments and His justice, and His judgments have no respect of persons.
(1 Enoch 63:8)
I say then, Have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid: but rather through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles, for to provoke them to jealousy. Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness?
(Rom 11:11-12)
He shall be a staff to the righteous and they shall steady themselves and not fall. And he shall be the light of the Gentiles, and the hope of those who are troubled of heart.
(1 Enoch 48:4)
For it is written, As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God. 12 So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.
(Rom 14: 11-12)
In those days shall the mighty and the kings who possess the earth beg Him to grant them a little respite from His angels of punishment to whom they were delivered, that they might fall down and worship before the Lord of spirits, and confess their sins before Him.
(1 Enoch 63:1)
But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.
(2Co 3: 18)
And they shall not be able to look at the face of the holy ones, because the Lord of spirits has caused His light to appear on the face of the holy, righteous, and elect.
(1 Enoch 38:4)
The Spirit clearly says that in later times some will abandon the faith and follow deceiving spirits and things taught by demons.
(1Ti 4: 1)

The rest of mankind that were not killed by these plagues still did not repent of the work of their hands; they did not stop worshiping demons, and idols of gold, silver, bronze, stone and wood— idols that cannot see or hear or walk. Nor did they repent of their murders, their magic arts, their sexual immorality or their thefts.
(Rev 9:20-21)

And Uriel said to me: ‘The angels who have had sex with women shall stand here, and their spirits, having assumed many different forms, are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, here shall they stand, until the day of the great judgment in which they shall be judged and are made an end of.
(1 Enoch 19:1)
And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power?
(2Th 1: 7-9)
Woe to you, you sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, and on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness has caused, in blazing flames burning worse than fire shall you burn.
(1 Enoch 100:9)
Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition.
(2Th 2: 3)
And when sin and unrighteousness and blasphemy and violence in all kinds of deeds increase, and apostasy and transgression and uncleanness increase; a great chastisement shall come from heaven on all these, and the holy Lord will come out with wrath and chastisement to execute judgment on earth.
(1 Enoch 91:7)

And after that in the seventh week shall an apostate generation arise, and many shall be its deeds, and all its deeds shall be apostate.
1 Enoch 93:9)

Which in his times he shall shew, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to whom be honour and power everlasting. Amen.
(1Ti 6: 15-16)
And they said to the Lord of the ages: ‘Lord of lords, God of gods, King of kings, and God of the ages, the throne of your glory endures through all the generations of the ages, and your name holy and glorious and blessed to all the ages!
(1 Enoch 9:4)

And I looked and saw a throne set on high, its appearance was like crystal, and its wheels were like a shining sun, and there was the vision of cherubim. And from underneath the throne came rivers of fire so that I could not look at it.
(1 Enoch 14:18-19)

For we which have believed do enter into rest, as he said, As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enter into my rest: although the works were finished from the foundation of the world.
(Heb 4: 3)
And so there shall be length of days with the Son of Man, and the righteous shall have peace and an upright way in the name of the Lord of spirits forever and ever.’
(1 Enoch 71:17)
By the same word the present heavens and earth are reserved for fire, being kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men.
(2Pe 3: 7)
Here their spirits shall be set apart in this great pain until the great day of judgment and punishment and torment of those who curse forever and retribution for their spirits. (1 Enoch 22:11)
For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world. And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof: but he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever.
(1Jo 2:16-17)
For the judgment shall come on them, because they believe in the lust of their body and deny the Spirit of the Lord.
(1 Enoch 67:10)
But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering. For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed. For let not that man think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord. A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways.
(Jam 1: 6-8)
Love righteousness and walk in it, and draw near to righteousness without a double heart, and do not associate with those of a double heart, but walk in righteousness, my sons. And it shall guide you on good paths. And righteousness shall be your companion.
(1 Enoch 91:4)
And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.
(Jde 1: 6)
I heard the voice of the angel saying: ‘These are the angels who descended to the earth, and revealed what was hidden to the children of men and seduced the children of men into committing sin.’
(1 Enoch 64:2)
And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains; And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb: For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?
(Rev 6: 15-17)
And I looked and turned to another part of the earth, and saw there a deep valley with burning fire. And they brought the kings and the powerful, and began to cast them into this deep valley.
(1 Enoch 54:1-2)
And the winepress was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the winepress, even unto the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs.
(Rev 14: 20)
And the horse shall walk up to the breast in the blood of sinners, and the chariot shall be submerged to its height.
(1 Enoch 100:3)
And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.
(Rev 19:20)
And on the day of the great judgment he shall be hurled into the fire.
(1 Enoch 10:6)
And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold of the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed for a little season.
(Rev 20: 1-3)
And again the Lord said to Raphael: ‘Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness and split open the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him in. 5 And fill the hole by covering him with rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him live there forever, and cover his face that he may not see the light.
(1 Enoch 10:4-5)
And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the Book of Life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And whosoever was not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire.
(Rev 20: 12-15)
And in those days shall the earth also give back that which has been entrusted to it, and Sheol (the grave) also shall give back that which it has received, and hell shall give back that which it owes. For in those days the Elect One shall arise, And he shall choose the righteous and holy from among them. For the day has drawn near that they should be saved.
(1 Enoch 51:1-2)
And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal.
(Rev 21: 10-11)
And he translated (carried) my spirit into heaven of heavens, and I saw there as it were built of crystals, and between those crystals tongues of living fire.
(1 Enoch 71:5)
And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. 2 In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. 3 And there shall be no more curses: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him.
(Rev 22: 1-3)
And as for this fragrant tree, no mortal is permitted to touch it until the great judgment, when He shall take vengeance on all and bring everything to its completion forever. It shall then be given to the righteous and holy. Its fruit shall be for food to the Elect: it shall be transplanted to the holy place, to the temple of the Lord, the Eternal King.
(1 Enoch 25:4-5)